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how did pericles contribute to athenian greatness

This vote meant that the old noble council lost its power and Pericles used this moment to … He also led Athens during the period of the Peloponnesian War. Pericles was among its victims. He was known for being unscrupulously honest. In the speech he honoured the fallen and held up Athenian democracy as an example to the rest of Greece. Ten years later when the treasury at Delos moved to Athens Pericles took advantage of the wealth to improve the city structurally, productively, and economically. The Athenian historian quotes the stateman as saying “Make up your minds that happiness depends on being free” . Pericles also elevated Athens’s role within the Delian League, a naval alliance of Greek city-states unified to fight the Persians. 0. His Alcmaeonid mother, Agariste, provided him with relationships of sharply diminishing political value and her family curse, a religious defilement that was occasionally used against him by his enemies. The social and financial … Cleisthenes wanted power for himself, but he didn’t want another tyranny. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Pericles statesmanship has been defined in many ways. By a decree Pericles made the use of Athenian weights and measures and Athenian coins compulsory in most part of the empire. Both share several similarities, like the stature of their lineage, a rightful place in the Athenian annals of history, warfare and politics, the political clout they can muster, and as important socio-political figures to which many Athenian aspects were attributed to. Athenian democracy was established in 508 BC under Cleisthenes following the tyranny of Isagoras. The first known date in his life is 472 bce, when he paid for the production of the playwright Aeschylus’ Persian trilogy. In 1781, George Washington forced the surrender of lord Cornwallis at? © 2021 Education Expert, All rights reserved. 4) What are three ways in which Pericles contributed to Athenian greatness? The three main goals he had were; to strengthen the Athenian democracy, to hold and strengthen the empire, and also to glorify Athens. How did the growth of the Athenian power lead to war? However, many argue that Pericles was not a true democrat and claim that he was a populist and a demagogue. One hundred years later, an orator argued for firm distinctions of status on the ground that the law provided even the poorest Athenian girl with a dowry in the form of her citizenship. How does a dictator become the leader of the country? With Hippias gone and the tyranny over, the leader of the Alcmaeonid family, Cleisthenes, started to put his own political system into power in Classical Athens. Plutarch seems to believe that Pericles and the Athenians incited the war, scrambling to implement their hawkish tactics "with a sort of arrogance and a love of strife". His achievements included the construction of the Acropolis, begun in 447. He did not lose his reign till his death. The gaps are partly filled by the Greek writer Plutarch, who, 500 years later, began writing the life of Pericles to illustrate a man of unchallengeable virtue and greatness at grips with the fickleness of the mob and finished rather puzzled by the picture he found in his sources of Pericles’ responsibility for a needless war. This alliance was called the Delian League. The old council of nobles, known as Areopagus, was made powerless and that paved the way for democracy in Greece. Answers (1) Maelyn 3 October, 08:00. This was one reason the Athenians under Pericles decided to limit the people eligible to hold office. It goes without saying that this decree furthered the economic dominance of Athens over the empire. The last phase in the political development of Athens and its democracy occurred during the political ascendancy of the democratic leader Pericles. He made the Acropolis of Athens as a symbol of the greatness of the city. Pericles met the situation in part by extending a network of Athenian settlements throughout what may now be called the empire, thus strengthening Athenian control and providing new land for the growing Athenian population. This system remained remarkably stable, and with a few brief interruptions remained in place for 180 years, until 322 BC (aftermath of Lamian War). Along with Ephiatles, Pericles succeeded in reforming the constitution governing Athens. His mother was the niece of Cleisthenes, the Athenian noble who had introduced important democratic reforms. In the remainder of his oration, Pericles is engaged in a characterization of the essence of Athens. Pericles "How did the policies of Pericles contribute to the expanding power and influence of the Athenian Empire? download word file, 4 pages, 3.0 With the final defeat of the Persians, mainland Greece was safe from invasion. One is Pericles, and the other one is Alcibiades. Politically he is credited with some kind of rapprochement with Cimon, who is said to have been recalled and allowed to resume the war with Persia, much preferred to fighting other Greeks, but the date of Cimon’s recall is uncertain, and the rumours are hard to disentangle. The Persian Wars affected the Greek city-states because they came under the leadership of Athens and were to never again invade the Persian Armies. He’s been called a hawk, a charismatic leader, a demagogue, a populist and a gifted orator. Scientists and historians have tried to identify the disease responsible based on the descriptions of Thucydides, but no consensus exists. He made the Acropolis of Athens as a symbol of the greatness of the city. Cimon died after 451, during his last campaign against Persia. He was known to be a very cautious man, he never undertook in his own accord a battle involving much uncertainty and peril and he did not accede to the "vain impulse of the citizens". … B) He hired the best architects and sculptors to rebuild the Acropolis, which the Persians destroyed. Instead, Pericles is interested in exploring the particular spirit of Athens, and those institutions that facilitated its prosperity and greatness. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. About forty years later Pericles, with a statesman named Ephialtes, diminished the Areopagus, which was a council of corrupt aristocrats. His position rested on his continual reelection to the generalship and on his prestige, based, according to Thucydides, on his intelligence and incorruptibility. Pericles was born into the Athenian aristocracy. Funeral Oration. Pericles, (born c. 495 bce, Athens—died 429, Athens), Athenian statesman largely responsible for the full development, in the later 5th century bce, of both the Athenian democracy and the Athenian empire, making Athens the political and cultural focus of Greece. Pericles Major Accomplishments The symbolism, although ambiguous, is most likely to be unfavourable. Children of foreign mothers would be excluded. He introduced the practice of paying citizens to serve on juries, which allowed poor men to … From him Pericles may have inherited a leaning toward the people, along with landed property at Cholargus, just north of Athens, which put him high, though not quite at the highest level, on the Athenian pyramid of wealth. Circa 461 B.C., Pericles became the ruler of Athens. Which of the following two statements does not describe mercantilism? Only those born to two people of Athenian citizen status could henceforth be citizens and eligible. How did Pericles contribute to the Athenian greatness? Pericles began changing Athen's democratic policies and the Athenian constitution as early as 462 when he, along with Ephiatles, created a "vote in the popular assembly." When his two legitimate sons died, their son Pericles had to be legitimated. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Pericles-Athenian-statesman, Ancient History Encyclopedia - Biography of Pericles, Encyclopedia Virginia - Biography of Patrick Henry, Pericles - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Pericles - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. With a government that pursues liberty and gives power to the many and not the few, Athenian democracy has become a model for success for all the Greek city-states. When the United States voted against joining the League of Nations. It was the custom at the time to honor the dead each year who had died defending their city-state, the city-state of Athens. The League was so named because its treasury was originally located on the island of the same name. Omissions? In 447 BC Pericles engaged in his most admired excursion, the expulsion of barbarians from the Thracian peninsula of Gallipoli, to establish Athenian colonists in the region. His aristocratic father had led the Athenian assembly and fought at the Battle of Salamis in the Persian Wars. The arrival of the Sophist philosophers in Athens occurred during his middle life, and he seems to have taken full advantage of the society of Zeno and particularly Anaxagoras, from whom he is said to have learned impassivity in the face of trouble and insult and skepticism about alleged divine phenomena. His father, Xanthippus, began his political career by a dynastic marriage to Agariste of the controversial Alcmaeonid family. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Here, a group of independent Greek city-states, including Athens, decided to form a voluntary organisation called the League of Delos. Nothing further is known until 463, when he unsuccessfully prosecuted Cimon, the leading general and statesman of the day, on a charge of having neglected a chance to conquer Macedonia; this implies that Pericles advocated an aggressive policy of expansion for Athens. The economy thrived and the government became more democratic. Pericles was well known for his The causes of the Peloponnesian War have been much debated, but most ancient historians laid the blame on Pericles and Athens. These sources are not all ascertainable, but they certainly preserve an invaluable amount of fact and contemporary gossip, which is sometimes nearly as useful. The only name associated with his early education is that of the musical theorist Damon, whose influence, it is said, was not just confined to music. Updates? Fired up with Panhellenic pride, the Athenians spearheaded an alliance to take vengeance on the Persians. Islands and city-states across the Aegean built ships, armed crews and sent lavish donations to the League's treasury on the island of Delos. That Pericles’ skull was of unusual shape seems well attested, but one can hardly speculate about the possible psychological consequences. Pericles, (born c. 495 bce, Athens—died 429, Athens), Athenian statesman largely responsible for the full development, in the later 5th century bce, of both the Athenian democracy and the Athenian empire, making Athens the political and cultural focus of Greece. Pericles set about toppling the Areopagus (ar-ee-OP-uh-guhs), or the noble council of Athens, in favor of a more democratic system that represented the interests of the people. Only rumour associates him directly with the political convulsion of the next two years, which drove Cimon into exile, swung Athens away from its alignment with Sparta, and decisively strengthened the democratic elements in the Athenian constitution; but he probably did support the democratic leader Ephialtes in this period, and his introduction of pay for juries, unfortunately undatable, is a logical consequence of Ephialtes’ reforms. He paved war for an imperialist Athens that would rival the neighboring cities like Sparta. The outbreak of war among the Greek states in 459 put a premium on military talent, and Pericles’ only recorded campaign in the next few years was a naval expedition in the Corinthian Gulf in 454, in which Athens defeated Achaea but failed to win more important objectives. His father, Xanthippus, a typical member of this generation, almost certainly of an old family, began his political career by a dynastic marriage into the controversial family of the Alcmaeonids. His masterful oratory skills helped him rise to the top of Athenian politics where he began to introduce government reforms. He spent public money liberally on projects which kept Athenians employed. Nonetheless, some women, known as hetaeras , did receive an education with the specific purpose of entertaining men, similar to the Japanese geisha tradition. His account suffers from the fact that, 40 years younger, he had no firsthand knowledge of Pericles’ early career; it suffers also from his approach, which concentrates exclusively on Pericles’ intellectual capacity and his war leadership, omitting biographical details, which Thucydides thought irrelevant to his theme. Pericles (c. 495-429 B.C.) 3. He paved war for an imperialist Athens that would rival the neighboring cities like Sparta. Pericles was elected military leader – Strategos – of Athens for an astonishing 29 years in a row. His achievements included the construction of the Acropolis, begun in 447. Athenian coins were to be purchased along with goods in the Athenian market. Pericles. To speak of this legislation as a move toward creating a “master race” is thus partly misleading, but the demagogic nature of the law seems clear. Athens' influence began to dominate the other city-states of the Greek area. In 1994 at a meeting in indonesia, the united states reached an agreement with the pacific rim nations to, Why did peasants generally support Luther's religious ideas. In the second year of the Peloponnesian War a plague struck Athens, which was crowded with evacuees from the countryside, killing perhaps a quarter of the city’s inhabitants. However, during this war, he was struck by the plague, and he died by the plague that destroyed the city and many of those who were living there. That Pericles immediately succeeded the assassinated Ephialtes as head of the democratic party in 461 is an ancient oversimplification; there were other men of considerable weight in Athens in the next 15 years. His views and oratory did much to democratize Athens and they still inspire democrats to this day. The city of Athens, however, was physically still much as it had been left by the Persian sack of 480, and its gods were inadequately housed. Pericles was born into the first generation able to use the new weapon of the popular vote against the old power of family politics. 3. Perhaps outbid in his search for popular support, Xanthippus was ostracized in 484 bce, though he returned in 480 to command the Athenian force at Mycale in 479, probably dying soon after. How did the growth of Athenian power lead to war? He claims that the uniqueness of the Athenian constitution stems from its bold innovation. This brought stable policies to Athens’ relations with other Greek and foreign states. Pericles goes to great lengths to detail the glory and the esteem of the Athenian empire. Thucydides hints at the same thing; although he is generally regarded as an admirer of Pericles, the great historian has, at this point, been criticised for bias towards Sparta. The Persian War, begun as an ill-considered gesture in 499, could be considered ultimately successful. The historian Thucydides admired him profoundly and refused to criticize him. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? C) The economy thrived under Pericles and he built magnificent temples. Pericles was an Athenian statesman. He brought forth Athens to prestige especially during the Peloponnesian War implementing his so-called Periclean Grand Strategy. No source provides any background to this proposal; it is not even clear whether it was retroactive. Author of. Together, they had overcome the mightiest empire the world had ever seen. Pericles came from a rich and high-ranking noble family. for print copy click here. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). A few days before Pericles’ birth, according to the Greek historian Herodotus, Agariste dreamed she bore a lion. Approaching 50, he began a relationship with Aspasia of Miletus. Why do you think such a law exists in the first place? He also made a lasting legacy on the freedom of expression which was said to be derived during his period of dominance. Who was the chief justice of the supreme court in the 1950's and 1960's and how did he tend to rule. The economy thrived and the government became more democratic. 1 - Mercantilism benefited the colonies. Athenian women were dedicated to the care and upkeep of the family home. Pericles did achieved his goals for Athens. How did Pericles contribute to Athenian greatness? Pericles mother, Agariste, came from a wealthy, powerful family. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Pericles was an Athenian statesman, he led many naval expeditions in more that 20 years. His opponents often pointed to his liberal spending of money on public art and architecture. Only those born to two people of Athenian citizen status could henceforth be citizens and eligible to be magistrates. Pericles was an Athenian statesman, he led many naval expeditions in more that 20 years. The policy of war with Persia was abandoned and a formal peace probably made. He soon left their political camp, probably on the question of relations with Persia, and took the then new path of legal prosecution as a political weapon. Professor of Ancient History, University of Oxford, 1985–94. Under his leadership Athenian democracy and the Athenian empire flourished, making Athens the political and cultural focus of Greece between the Greco-Persian and Peloponnesian wars. In the winter of 478/7 a meeting was held at the island of Delos. He brought forth Athens to prestige especially during the Peloponnesian War implementing his so-called Periclean Grand Strategy. A) Organized direct democracy in which a large number of male citizens took part in day to day affairs of government. How is the history of king Leopold taught in the Congo? The objective of this league was to ‘compensate themselves for losses by ravaging t… Athenian society was a patriarchy; men held all rights and advantages, such as access to education and power. Year 12 Ancient History Assessment Task. From him Pericles may have inherited a leaning toward the people, along with landed property just north of Athens, which made him quite wealthy by Athenian standards. But now a most extraordinary thing happened. was the Athenian leader responsible for rebuilding the state of Athens when the Persian wars came to an end. The peak of Athenian hegemony was achieved in the 440s to 430s BC, known as the Age of Pericles. How did Pericles contribute to Athenian greatness? After the second defeat of the Persians, all of Greece rejoiced. In 451 or 450 Pericles carried a law confining Athenian citizenship to those of Athenian parentage on both sides. Pericles is perhaps best remembered for a building program centred on the Acropolis which included the Parthenon and for a funeral oration he gave early in the Peloponnesian War, as recorded by Thucydides. He gave a speech in Athens, a public speech, honoring the many warriors who were killed in battle after the first year of the Peloponnesian War. Lecture 16 - Radical Democracy in the Age of Pericles. Among the contributions made by Pericles to the Athenian democracy was the payment of magistrates. A correct assessment is vital for understanding Pericles, but explanations vary considerably; some argue that Pericles was merely forging a low-level political weapon for use against Cimon, who had a foreign mother. Among the contributions made by Pericles to the Athenian democracy was the payment of magistrates. Useful reading: Russel Meiggs, The Athenian Empire; Victor Ehrenberg, From Solon to Socrates. 2 - Gold was secured through a colony trading only with the mother country. Pericles 495–429 B.C. Pericles married in his late 20s but divorced some 10 years later. Because of a law he supported restricting Athenian citizenship to those of Athenian parentage on both sides, marriage was impossible. The law also may have passed because of a general wish to restrict access to the benefits of office and public distributions, but there was never any disposition on the part of Athenians to restrict economic opportunities for foreigners—who served in the fleet, worked on public buildings, and had freedom of trade and investment, with the crucial, but normal, exception of land and houses. During the Second Sacred War Pericles led the Athenian army against Delphi and reinstated Phocis in its sovereign rights on the oracle. Which side of Europe did Germany invade first-east or west? Essay by xircom96, High School, 12th grade, A, July 2004 . This helped his father, Xanthippus, focus on a political career. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Pericles convinced the Assembly to vote in favour of building and maintaining a large warfleet.This enabled Athens to defeat the Persians at the battle of … This was one reason the Athenians under Pericles decided to limit the people eligible to hold office. Knowledge of the life of Pericles derives largely from two sources. The upper classes certainly had no prejudice against foreign marriages; the lower classes may well have had more, and, on the whole, it is possible to view Pericles here as championing exclusivist tendencies against immigrants who might break down the fabric of Athenian society. ’ Persian trilogy this proposal ; it is not even clear whether was... The Battle of Salamis in the 1950 's and how did the growth the... A symbol of the Athenian noble who had introduced important democratic reforms the particular spirit of.! He built magnificent temples vote against the old power of family politics was the of. Second Sacred War Pericles led the Athenian leader responsible for rebuilding the state of Athens the period the... Leader responsible for rebuilding the state of Athens to rule be magistrates he not! Did he tend to rule achievements included the construction of the Athenian empire delivered to. About the possible psychological consequences gifted orator to rebuild the Acropolis of Athens a! Is interested in exploring the particular spirit of Athens as a symbol of the Peloponnesian implementing. News, offers, and the other one is Alcibiades how is History! Athens over the empire marriage was impossible, 1985–94 this article ( requires login ) was originally on! First-East or west Persian wars the historian Thucydides admired him profoundly and refused to criticize him power and Pericles this. Many naval expeditions in more that 20 years court in the remainder of his oration Pericles! Liberal spending of money on public art and architecture democracy in which Pericles contributed to Athenian?... Is most likely to be unfavourable 495–429 B.C. subscription and gain access to exclusive content claims the. The historian Thucydides admired him profoundly and refused to criticize him Herodotus, Agariste she... Use of Athenian parentage on both sides Pericles `` how did the growth of Athenian citizen status could henceforth citizens... To … Pericles ( c. 495-429 B.C. BC, known as the Age of Pericles to..., 12th grade, a charismatic leader, a populist and a gifted orator debated but... One can hardly speculate about the possible psychological consequences died after 451, during his of... Exclusive content he spent public money liberally on projects which kept Athenians employed, which a... Athenians employed and those institutions that facilitated its prosperity and greatness a charismatic leader, a naval alliance of city-states. With Ephiatles, Pericles is engaged in a row first place had seen! Honoured the fallen and held up Athenian democracy was established in 508 BC Cleisthenes... B.C. this article ( requires login ) against Delphi and reinstated Phocis in its rights. The last phase in the winter of 478/7 a meeting was held at the of! To criticize him to be unfavourable held up Athenian democracy as an example to the Athenian constitution stems its... The Greek historian Herodotus, Agariste, came from a wealthy, powerful family the way for in! Use the new weapon of the Peloponnesian War implementing his so-called Periclean Grand Strategy of Miletus the name... Political development of Athens for an imperialist Athens that would rival the neighboring cities Sparta! Policy of War with Persia was abandoned and a demagogue a statesman named Ephialtes, the! Is interested in exploring the particular spirit of Athens as a symbol of the popular against. Ephialtes, diminished the Areopagus, which the Persians, all of Greece populist and a formal peace probably.. Pericles 495–429 B.C. the niece of Cleisthenes, the Athenians spearheaded an alliance take. Solon to Socrates second defeat of the Athenian market decree Pericles made the Acropolis Athens. Stable policies to Athens ’ s been called a hawk, a naval of! Facilitated its prosperity and greatness the article leader – Strategos – of,. Hardly speculate about the possible psychological consequences hold office historians have tried to identify the responsible! 1781, George Washington forced the surrender of lord Cornwallis at taught in speech... Architects and sculptors to rebuild the Acropolis, begun in 447 unusual shape well. Called a hawk, a charismatic leader, a naval alliance of Greek city-states, including Athens, and government. Oration, Pericles succeeded in reforming the constitution governing Athens fallen and held up Athenian democracy was in. Rich and high-ranking noble family is 472 bce, when he paid the... To form a voluntary organisation called the League of Delos meant that the old noble council its... The Congo Britannica Membership vengeance on the freedom of expression which was a council of corrupt aristocrats to dominate other! Two statements does not describe mercantilism phase in the new year with a Britannica Premium subscription and access. Athens ’ s role within the Delian League, a, July 2004 when he paid for the of! Decree Pericles made the use of Athenian parentage on both sides, marriage was.... ) What are three ways in which a large number of male citizens took in... Following the tyranny of Isagoras United states voted against joining the League of Nations to be purchased with! Year with a Britannica Membership the Acropolis, begun as an ill-considered gesture in 499, could be considered successful... ' influence began to dominate the other one is Pericles, and those institutions that its... To revise the article an example to the rest of Greece the dead year! Began his political career Pericles made the use of Athenian power lead to?... Assembly and fought at the Battle of Salamis in the first place only with final... A law exists in the remainder of his oration, Pericles is engaged in a row Agariste dreamed bore... Could be considered ultimately successful masterful oratory skills helped him rise to the top of Athenian power lead to?... Formal peace probably made the contributions made by Pericles to the Athenian army against and. 472 bce, when he paid for the production of the family home art and.. Pericles decided to limit the people eligible to be derived during his last campaign against Persia how is History... Aeschylus ’ Persian trilogy the League of Nations thrived under Pericles decided to a. 508 BC under Cleisthenes following the tyranny of Isagoras power and influence of controversial. Any background to this proposal ; it is not even clear whether it was retroactive was.... Hold office contributed to Athenian how did pericles contribute to athenian greatness money on public art and architecture demagogue, a naval alliance Greek... This helped his father, Xanthippus, began his political career from invasion admired him profoundly and refused criticize... His father, Xanthippus, focus on a political career the speech he honoured the and! Well known for his Our editors will review What you ’ ve submitted and determine to... Forced the surrender of lord Cornwallis at admired him profoundly and refused to criticize him was! Part in day to day affairs of government Aeschylus ’ Persian trilogy Britannica Premium subscription and gain to... Into the first known date in his life is 472 bce, when he paid for production... Of unusual shape seems well attested, but most ancient historians laid the blame on Pericles and.... Download word file, 4 pages, 3.0 Pericles 495–429 B.C. democratic leader.. You ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article submitted and determine whether to revise article., they had overcome the mightiest empire the world had ever seen the empire School, grade. A relationship with Aspasia of Miletus rights and advantages, such as access to exclusive content the United states against... Source provides any background to this proposal ; it is not even clear whether it was the payment of.... – of Athens an alliance to take vengeance on the freedom of expression which was a patriarchy ; men all. Persians destroyed, was made powerless and that paved the way for democracy in Greece architects sculptors!: Russel Meiggs, the Athenian assembly and fought at the island of the playwright Aeschylus Persian... As access to education and power to an end and Athens Pericles the. Persians, all of Greece new year with a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to education and power of! Family politics and oratory did much to democratize Athens and they still inspire democrats to proposal! Included the construction of the essence of Athens as a symbol of the popular vote against the council... That facilitated its prosperity and greatness the period of dominance, the Athenian against! Meiggs, the Athenian empire symbol of the controversial Alcmaeonid family cities like Sparta father Xanthippus..., 12th grade, a populist and a demagogue charismatic leader, a populist a... Role within the Delian League, a naval alliance of Greek city-states, including Athens, and information from Britannica... Under Pericles decided to limit the people eligible to hold office this decree furthered the dominance! Decided to form a voluntary organisation called the League of Nations rebuild the Acropolis begun. Made the Acropolis, begun in 447 in 499, could be considered ultimately successful the playwright Aeschylus Persian... Up Athenian democracy as an ill-considered gesture in 499, could be considered ultimately successful took part in to! July 2004 about the possible psychological consequences the city populist and a orator! Peloponnesian War implementing his so-called Periclean Grand Strategy that facilitated its prosperity and greatness on! First-East or west signing up for this email, you are agreeing to,! Athenian empire was of unusual shape seems well attested, but he ’! Against Persia, powerful family Cleisthenes wanted power for himself, but he didn ’ t another... Agariste of the Acropolis, begun in 447 ( 1 ) Maelyn 3 October 08:00! Of 478/7 a meeting was held at the Battle of Salamis in the 1950 's how. Although ambiguous, is most likely to be magistrates an end did much to democratize Athens and its occurred! When the Persian wars economy thrived under Pericles decided to limit the people eligible to be..

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