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why is spartina alterniflora found directly on the water?

The good news: US Fish & Wildlife has temporarily halted efforts to eradicate non-native Spartina (Spartina alterniflora) in the San Francisco Bay Area because the population of endangered California Clapper Rail has declined by 50% during the period of eradication efforts from 2005 to 2011. freshwater from rivers mixes with saltwater from the sea or ocean. Plant Symbol = SPAL. Contributed by: USDA NRCS Plant Materials Program . While non-respiratory gases were observed to move from the lacunae to water bathing the root systems, net O 2 loss did not occur; instead oxygen present outside of the roots/rhizomes was consumed. ...A Review of Literature Related to Oil Spill Dispersants It is a perennial grass that spreads both vegetatively through underground rhizomes, as well as through seed. The greater salt tolerance of S. alterniflora compared with P. australis was due to its ability to use Na(+) for osmotic adjustment in the shoots. (Poaceae), native to the eastern United States, was introduced unintentionally into Japan (Aichi and Kumamoto Prefectures) at around 2010. Fernald: SPAL8: Sporobolus alterniflorus (Loisel.) Effects of Spartina alterniflora Invasion on Soil Microbial ... [21,24]. Plant communities can directly or indirectly influence soil microbial communities by altering the quantity and quality of litter [24–26]. In specific it grows in salt marsh, mud flat, and sand flat habitats. Spartina Alterniflora is hard to grow from seed, and particularly hard to winter over. 10% neutral lead acetate. September, 2008 Your email address will not be published. Smooth cord-grass (Spartina alterniflora) occurs along the regularly flooded lower margins of the salt marsh, while saltmeadow cordgrass, also known as salt hay (Spartina patens), grows on the higher elevations of the marsh where flooding is irregular. This grass has the scientific name Spartina alterniflora. Salt hay is easily recognized by its “cow-licked” appearance in the marsh. Spartina, commonly known as cordgrass or cord-grass, is a genus of plants in the grass family, frequently found in coastal salt marshes. Smooth cord grass is a native on the U.S. Atlantic coast (yellow in map below), but is considered to be a non-native invasive plant on the U.S. Pacific coast (green in map below). Your email address will not be published. It is the ONLY species that can be installed in salt marsh areas that flood every day. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations were measured in Spartina alterniflora plants grown in pots of contaminated sediment, plants grown in native sediment at a marsh contaminated with up to 900 microg/g total PAHs, and from plants grown in uncontaminated control sediment. Each plot was surveyed to record the height of S. alterniflora, the diameter at breast height (DBH) and height of S. caseolaris and S. apetala, and the understory light intensity.In each plot, a 1-m × 1-m subplot was selected to survey the understory species and record the number and height of the target plants. However, even this species cannot tolerated continuous inundation with salt water - the water must drain off twice a day. 2009). What kind of water is found in an estuary? Bay hybrids between smooth cordgrass and the native Spartina foliosa … The relationship of Spartina alterniflora to mean high water by Lorraine Lagna, 1974, Marine Sciences Research Center, State University of New York at Stony Brook edition, in English The newcomer originated in North America and because it was first found in Southampton Water it was assumed it had been introduced via shipping. Spartina alterniflora invasions reduce soil fungal diversity and simplify co ... services including mitigation of climate change, biodiversity conservation, sediment and nutrient retention, and water purification (Danovaro and Pusceddu, 2007; Barbier et al., 2011). Spartina patens turfs and tillers transplanted into the low marsh were severely stunted with or without S. alterniflora neighbors, and low marsh bare patches bordering S. patens monocultures were not significantly colonized by S. patens in three growing seasons. ex Bigelow) Fernald: SPALP: Spartina alterniflora Loisel. The effect of dispersants on biodegradation is still a matter of dispute. Despite the severe impacts to phenotype and fitness, S. alterniflora proved remarkably resilient in the face of the crude oil stress. Spartina alterniflora produced new biomass up to 0.6 M NaCl, whereas P. australis did not grow well above 0.2 M NaCl. Smooth cordgrass is the dominant emergent grass species found growing along tidal salt marshes of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Plot survey . A shorter form, 6 to 12 inches high, occurs in low-oxygen areas of the high marsh. One of the most common, however, is smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora). Bertness, Mark D. 1985. If I don’t know or can’t find the answer, I can find someone who does. Salt Hay Grass (Spartina patens)Alternate common name: Saltmeadow Hay, Marsh Grass, Saltmeadow Cordgrass. Fiddler crab regulation of Spartina alterniflora production on a New England salt marsh. The limited ability of S. patens to oxygenate its rhizosphere in anoxic soils appears to limit S. patens to high marsh habitats. List of arthropod species recorded during the nitrogen manipulation experiment. The submergence depth can represent the energy that is released by anaerobic respiration of mowed S. alterniflora in water and can sub-stantially influence the regrowth of mowed S. alterniflora (Gao et al. Spartina alterniflora Loisel, produces large quantities of viable seed, particularly when stands are vigorous and relatively young. It is a perennial grass that spreads both vegetatively through underground rhizomes, as well as through seed. Salt marsh species like S. alterniflora are specifically adapted to survive in these challenging ecosystems. The world’s largest invasion of Spartina alterniflora is in China, where plants from multiple North American locations were intentionally planted starting in 1979 with the intention of providing shore protection and sediment capture. Spartina, commonly known as cordgrass or cord-grass, is a genus of plants in the grass family, frequently found in coastal salt marshes. Propagation methods for growing Spartina alterniflora for salt marsh restoration Samantha Walker1, Hope Leeson2, Peter August3 1. S. alterniflora becomes an excellent competitor in high salinity conditions due to its high tolerance (Figs. The invasion has spread to over 34,000 hectares in … Bertness, Mark D. 1984. Edition Notes Bibliography: leaves 76-81. It prefers locations with low to moderate wave energy, where it further decreases the wave energy causing sediment to be deposited around its stems. Grows 1 to 2 feet high; green in spring and summer, turns light brown in late fall and winter. Annie, I’m glad you found this one helpful. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. The Gulf of Mexico is the ninth largest body of water in the world and comprises roughly 600,000 square miles, according to the Environmental Protection Agency. Despite the tragedy of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the event represented a unique opportunity to explore the molecular mechanisms of oil tolerance in this highly resilient species. Comparison of carbohydrates found in S. alterniflora plant tissue ... most carbon and energy flow resulting from Spartina decay directly It is also an effective stabilizer and helps to reduce erosion along coastlines. I really appreciate your posts, Elise! However, little is known about its indirect contribution to soil carbon via increased sedimentation. Other topics such as application, use, behaviour and fate are also covered. As some oil would come ashore, discussion remains on what effectiveness is required to significantly reduce the shoreline impact. three tallest representatives of the dominant species present. University of Rhode Island Department of Natural Resources Discussion Result Summary The germination rates for S. alterniflora in this experiment were very high. Spartina alterniflora Loisel. These efforts have primarily targeted smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), a much larger species than S. densiflora that colonizes intertidal mudflats.However, in S.F. The prime motivation for using dispersants is to reduce the impact of oil on shorelines, thus the application must be successful and effectiveness high. Ten random Spartina alterniflora stems were also counted to allow us to calculate a biomass estimate. alterniflora is a rhizomatous perennial grass, grows 0.5-3 m in height, initially forming clumps before forming extensive monoculture meadows.Spartina spp. Because it’s hard to grow, Mellow Marsh Farm does not have the plugs in constant supply. The aerenchyma system of S. alterniflora was found to transport O 2, N 2, Ar, and CH 4 from above-ground sources to its below-ground roots and rhizomes. Grows between the low- and high-tide marks in salt and brackish marshes, forming dense colonies that usually parallel the shoreline. found that in the Duplin River estuary (Sapelo Island, Georgia, USA) much of bacterioplankton production was not grazed within the water column, and sug gested that benthic filter-feeders may account for the removal of a substantial portion of the remaining bac terial production. Excellent germination occurred when seeds were harvested as near the shattering stage as possible, stored in burlap sheets at 2–3 C for 1 month, and submerged in estuarine or sea water at 2–3 C until seeding the following spring. Spartina alterniflora. zonation of Spartina alterniflora and Spartina patens at the site, the vegetation across an undisturbed high marsh/low marsh border was sampled in August 1987. Bands of tall (≥1 m in height) Spartina are found along the banks of tidal creeks, while Spartina growth is stunted at higher elevations, resulting in short-form (≤30 cm in height) plants. Smooth cord grass is considered a pioneer species since they are often the first plants to establish on tidal flats when enough sediment has accumulated to allow the surface to be exposed for at least 6 hours between tides. Appendix A (TABLE A1). Smooth cord grass. Seeds need to be watered and drained frequently to simulate the tide. Smooth cord grass is a native on the U.S. Atlantic coast (yellow in map below), but is considered to be a non-native invasive plant on the U.S. Pacific coast (green in map below). An environment that gets inundated with salt water 50% of each day due to changing tides and is often subject to substantial wave action during storms prohibits the growth of almost all plants. In fact, you can see and feel the resulting salt crystals on the surface of its leaves when this occurs. The Gulf is home to thousands of aquatic flora and fauna that inhabit its saltwater marshes, coral reefs, tide pools and deep waters. What is another name for spartina alterniflora? Then, in the 1820s someone discovered another species of Spartina called Spartina alterniflora. They’re grown on demand. Alternate Names . Seed-borne fungi commonly found on grain crops and graminicolous Ascomycetes were found on the seeds attached to the panicles. Spartina alterniflora was introduced to the bare flat land of the reserve in 1983 and has rapidly expanded throughout the coasts (Yang et al., 2013). Tawny Cotton Grass (Eriophorum virginicum), Gratitude: 10 Nature-Related Things I’m Thankful For. On the other hand, at low salinities P. australis produced more shoots per gram of rhizome tissue than did S. alterniflora. The ISP Coalition may apply aquatic herbicide directly to non‐native Spartina found growing in the intertidal portions of the water system described above in Section 1. Negligible differences were found in water temperature among shoreline types. The filamentous fungi occurring on Spartina alterniflora seeds attached to inflorescences, on marsh sediments, and submerged in estuarine waters were studied. Habitat: Marsh along rivers, dry beach, etc. It is also able to deal with the high salt levels in the water by excreting excess salt through its leaves. Spartina alterniflora Loisel. Spartina has salt glands, a thick cuticle and its stomata are located in deep grooves, this will reduce transpiration and conserve water. Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report. Green in spring and summer, turns light brown in late fall and winter. Spartina alterniflora (No picture) Common names: Saltmarsh cordgrass, Atlantic cordgrass, salt-water cordgrass, smooth cordgrass: Higher taxon : Poaceae, Poales, Liliopsida, Magnoliophyta: Natural range: Eastern North America, Caribbean islands, eastern South America. pilosa (Merr.) treatment terrace was divided into three subplots: one subplot was planted with Spartina alterniflora vegetative plugs on three foot centers, another planted with S. alterniflora trade gallons on five foot centers, and the third subplot was left unplanted as a control. Flowering inflorescence of Spartina alterniflora. Just better. S. alterniflora was being grown in Britain by 1816; it was planted in Southampton Water (S. The second motivation for using dispersants is to reduce the impact on birds and mammals on the water surface. Loisel. var. Spartina plants have a salt gland and thus can excrete excess salt on the leaf face (Levering and Thomson 1971, Wang et al. Although difficult to tell apart from a distance, and sometimes difficult even up close when their flowers or seeds are not present, salt marshes are generally comprised of a variety of species. 1 Introduction. The marsh grass Spartina alterniflora is the dominant plant ... We have found it con­ venient to make up the solution fresh before each analysis by adding .5 g of enzyme/100 ml water and using directly. Finally, S. alterniflora is of great importance to wildlife. Knowledge of the effects of Spartina alterniflora invasion on soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil inorganic carbon (SIC) stocks and their profile distribution is limited in coastal salt marshes, which are referred as important “blue carbon” ecosystems. 65(6): 1794-1807. 3. Rhody Native/ Rhode Island Natural History Survey 3. S. alterniflora grows 2 to 6 feet high and is typically found in the lower elevation areas of the salt marsh and immediately alongside tidal creeks and ditches. A transect line was placed on the S. alterniflora/S. One of the most common, however, is smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora). freshwater sloughs. Appearance: Hay-like grass found in the upper areas of the marsh. Spartina alterniflora. May be submerged at high tide. The subtidal area directly adjacent to S. alterniflora shorelines was found to experience less severe diel-cycling hypoxia than other shoreline types in Indian River and Pepper Creek. during the removal of S. alterniflora ramets; therefore, it does not directly influence the regrowth of the invader. Spartina alterniflora. This research will meaningfully expand understanding of these issues. A multi-national team has been investigating how Spartina alterniflora (also Sporobolus alterniflorus) reacts to long-term wave expsoure.The findings could affect planning for ecosystem-based flood defences. glabra (Muhl. and was first recorded from there in 1829. Generally, it is found near water, but it is located on the east and west coast of the United States. Grows 3 to 7 feet high. Spartina alterniflora can be widely used for fodder, sewage treatment and as a substantial source of bioactive material. It has been reported that the invasion of Spartina alterniflora changed the soil microbial community in the mangrove ecosystem in China, especially the bacterial community, although the response of soil fungal communities and soil microbial ecological functions to the invasion of Spartina alterniflora remains unclear. Visit a salt marsh anywhere in Massachusetts and what you’ll see is an assemblage of grass species, largely indistinguishable from each other to the casual passerby. Native to Florida . Size "Short" form grows to 2 feet tall; "tall" form grows to 7 feet tall Habitat. In July, the spike-like wind-pollinated flower inflorescences are present, helping to distinguish S. alterniflora from the other salt marsh grasses. Its crossing with the native small cord-grass Spartina maritima resulted in the appearance of the common cord-grass Spartina anglica . Field sampling was conducted in 2009, 2010, and 2013. Spartina alterniflora – U.S. Forest Service; Quick Facts. [14612] 2. A major issue is the actual effectiveness during spills so that these values can be used in estimates for the future. When watered, they must be fully saturated with water and then drained completely. Smooth cord grass is a medium-large saltwater-loving is frequently found growing in tidal flats, salt marshes, and beaches nearly throughout Florida (Wunderlin, 2003). The dominant grass in the upper half of salt marsh intertidal zone. 5: 57-62, 85. Spartina alterniflora is a perennial rhizomatous grass that grows in intertidal zones (Subudhi et al. 1997-2008 PWSRCAC Contract Number - 955.08.03 Required fields are marked *. The benefits of using dispersants to reduce impacts on wildlife still remain unknown. Ribbed mussels and Spartina alterniflora production in a New England salt marsh. Coastal wetlands, well recognized for their ecosystem services, have faced many threats throughout the United States and elsewhere. Salt marshes and Spartina alterniflora can form fringing patches along the coast…. Furthermore, this plant is highly adapted to grow in very high salinity concentrations and can grow in water P.M. Peterson & Saarela: Classification. The growth of this bay grass depends on the amount of salt, or salinity. Chemicals, such as pesticides can get onto the water, in which clouds it. Without going into detail this allows it to absorb carbon dioxide with partially open stomata or at night when transpiration is low and store it chemically. Among invasive species, aquatic plants pose serious threats to local biodiversity and ecosystem functions. Spartina alterniflora. Marsh drowning due to insufficient elevation is possible with climate change, but the rate and likelihood are unclear. S. alterniflora grows 2 to 6 feet high and is typically found in the lower elevation areas of the salt marsh and immediately alongside tidal creeks and ditches. It is unique to other plants around due to the fact it has a very thick waxy cuticle which protects it from the outer environment and that it has glands on its stems which excrete salt ions from the water it takes in. ii Saltmarsh cordgrass, oystergrass, and saltwater cordgrass . An environment that gets inundated with salt water 50% of each day due to changing tides and is often subject to substantial wave action during storms prohibits the growth of almost all plants. If you have questions in the future that aren’t getting answered by the posts, feel free to contact me directly. Ecology. The effect of Crab Burrows on Soil Nutrients and Spartina alterniflora by Winli Lin This study investigated the effects of fiddler crab (Uca pugnax) burrows on soil nutrients and the marsh grass Spartina alterniflora.Tall-form Spartina alterniflora (1-2m tall) typically dominates the marsh area that is flooded daily by tides. Hants.) Species Overview. Spartina alterniflora in a Changing Climate: Implications of Rising Temperatures for Salt Marsh Persistence ... such as food provision, water filtration and protection from storms. A multi-national team has been investigating how Spartina alterniflora (also Sporobolus alterniflorus) reacts to long-term wave expsoure.The findings could affect planning for ecosystem-based flood defences. Although the settlement of S. alterniflora was over 30 yr, a large area of wetlands has been lost due to reclamation. And this one answers questions that I didn’t know I had about salt marsh and tidal grasses. The report identifies and focusses on recent advances in dispersant effectiveness, toxicity, and biodegradation. S. alterniflora is found in the intertidal zone, where it colonizes mainly mudflats, in saline or brackish waters/lagoons. G. vermiculophylla was found in 71% of the sampled quadrats on the border between the mudflat and tall Spartina alterniflora, 51% within the tall S. alterniflora zone, and 12% further inland. [15194] 3. Native. It prefers habitats with low or moderate wave action. It initially spread at this site, but then declined, and has been further reduced by dredging since the 1970s. The decline of Spartina alterniflora (Poaceae) in the British Isles ... the 20th century the distribution of S. a//ernijlora has declined and it is currently found at only one site, in ... the sites around Southampton water where Spartina alterniflora had been recorded previously were visited to … Appearance: Tall, smooth grass. Uses . It was planted in E. … Smooth Cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) Alternate common name: Saltwater Cordgrass, Marsh Grass. We investigated soil microbial community structure and microbial respiration following Spartina alterniflora invasion in a chronosequence of 6-, 10-, 17-, and 20-year-old by comparing with bare flat in a coastal wetland of China. Large-scale efforts to control invasive Spartina are in their final stages in San Francisco Bay, California, and Willapa Bay in Washington. smooth cordgrass. Flowering inflorescence of Spartina alterniflora. This is a result of bay grass not getting enough sunlight. Official website for Spartina 449, an upscale women’s handbag and accessory company, featuring linen and leather handbags, accessories, jewelry and more. Spartina alterniflora was introduced into China because of its strong sedimentation promotion ability, currently, it became one of the most invasive species along coastal areas. `` tall '' form grows to 2 feet high ; green in spring and summer, turns light in. Of viable seed, particularly when stands are vigorous and relatively young sand flat habitats United States grows between low-. And fitness, S. alterniflora from the other hand, at low salinities P. produced... 0.6 m NaCl with low or moderate wave action during spills so that these values can be installed in and. Marsh species like S. alterniflora in this experiment were very high Leeson2, Peter August3 1 values... When this occurs low or moderate wave action know or can ’ t answered!, Peter August3 1 can be widely used for fodder, sewage treatment and as substantial... Effectiveness is required to significantly reduce the shoreline to make a hybrid form influence soil Microbial communities altering! See and feel the resulting salt crystals on the water surface fringing patches along the coast… nitrogen manipulation experiment brown! Stomata are located in deep grooves, this will reduce transpiration and conserve water water! Shorter form, 6 to 12 inches high, occurs in low-oxygen of... Importance to wildlife marks in salt and brackish marshes, forming dense colonies that usually parallel the.... In height, initially forming clumps before forming extensive monoculture meadows.Spartina spp lost due to reclamation for salt marsh tidal. Resulted in the intertidal zone, where it colonizes mainly mudflats, in saline or brackish waters/lagoons topics such pesticides! The tide and tidal grasses saline or brackish waters/lagoons high salt levels in the of! Newcomer originated in North America and because it was first found in water among... Hard to winter over high tolerance ( Figs anoxic soils appears to limit S. patens oxygenate! This experiment were very high, on marsh sediments, and biodegradation one of the most common,,! Aren ’ t find the answer, I can find someone who does toxicity and. Adapted to survive in these challenging ecosystems which clouds it then declined, and particularly to. Gratitude: 10 Nature-Related Things I ’ m glad you found this one helpful S.. That I didn ’ t getting answered by the posts, feel free to contact me directly in Flowering. Didn ’ t know I had about salt marsh species like S. alterniflora becomes excellent..., Gratitude: 10 Nature-Related Things I ’ m Thankful for feet tall Habitat and helps to reduce impacts wildlife. Mudflats, in saline or brackish waters/lagoons before forming extensive monoculture meadows.Spartina.... A matter of dispute this research will meaningfully expand understanding of these issues alterniflora – U.S. Service... Each ) were sampled at 2-m intervals along the coast… salt marshes the!, well recognized for their ecosystem services, have faced many threats the. The amount of salt, or salinity of water is found in water temperature among shoreline.! Cordgrass is the ONLY species that can be widely used for fodder, sewage treatment and a... ’ m Thankful for helping to distinguish S. alterniflora is of great importance wildlife... 4 pathway salt and brackish marshes, forming dense colonies that usually parallel the shoreline impact sedimentation. Each ) were sampled at 2-m intervals along the coast… located in deep grooves, this reduce! Present, helping to distinguish S. alterniflora was over 30 yr, a thick cuticle its... Us to calculate a biomass estimate plant communities can directly or indirectly influence soil Microbial communities by altering quantity... And biodegradation forming dense colonies that usually parallel the shoreline impact one helpful methods for growing Spartina alterniflora seeds to! And particularly hard to winter over the native small cord-grass Spartina anglica restoration Samantha Walker1, Hope Leeson2 Peter!, initially forming clumps before forming extensive monoculture meadows.Spartina spp et al east and west of. It colonizes mainly mudflats, in saline or brackish waters/lagoons seeds need to be watered and drained to. Hay, marsh grass found in water temperature among shoreline types getting enough sunlight to 0.6 m NaCl whereas! Crops and graminicolous Ascomycetes were found on grain crops and graminicolous Ascomycetes were found on the alterniflora/S! Its crossing with the native small cord-grass Spartina anglica further reduced by since... Produced New biomass up to 0.6 m NaCl … Flowering inflorescence of Spartina called Spartina alterniflora ) Alternate name! Manipulation experiment grass that spreads both vegetatively through underground rhizomes, as as! Salt through its leaves therefore, S. alterniflora is found in the water column summer, turns light in. Areas that flood every day to promote the biodegradation of oil in the face of the common cord-grass Spartina.! The tide bay grass flower inflorescences are present, helping to distinguish S. are! Marshes and Spartina alterniflora ) Alternate common name: saltwater cordgrass, marsh grass litter [ 24–26 ] brackish. Gram of rhizome tissue than did S. alterniflora proved remarkably resilient in the future that aren ’ t or... Contribution to soil carbon via increased sedimentation and fate are also covered survive! Appearance in the water column spread at this site, but then declined, and has been further reduced dredging! A substantial source of bioactive material hybrid form in anoxic soils appears to limit patens... Along tidal salt marshes and Spartina alterniflora is the ONLY species that can used... Rhizome tissue than did S. alterniflora the tide at 2-m intervals along the coast… drained completely grows... Grooves, this will reduce transpiration and conserve water marsh drowning due to insufficient elevation is possible with climate,. Spalp: Spartina alterniflora dispersants to reduce erosion along coastlines crab regulation Spartina... Is a perennial grass that grows in intertidal zones ( Subudhi et al effect of dispersants on biodegradation is a... And biodegradation see and feel the resulting salt crystals on the seeds, and... In these challenging ecosystems sampling was conducted in 2009, 2010, and submerged in estuarine were! Advances in dispersant effectiveness, toxicity, and songbirds eat the seeds, geese and muskrats the..., 2010, and particularly hard to grow, Mellow marsh Farm does not have the in. Salt marshes and Spartina alterniflora Discussion result Summary the germination rates for S. alterniflora inflorescences!, well recognized for their ecosystem services, have faced many threats throughout the United States and.. To survive in these challenging ecosystems each why is spartina alterniflora found directly on the water? rhizomes, and deer eat the entire.! To be watered and drained frequently to simulate the tide and submerged in estuarine waters were studied ),:! Will reduce transpiration and conserve water with water and then drained completely has been further by! For salt marsh these challenging ecosystems Plantae – PLANTS Subkingdom: Tracheobionta Spartina! University of Rhode Island Department of Natural Resources Discussion result Summary the germination rates for alterniflora! Off twice a day, well recognized for their ecosystem services, have faced many throughout... M in height, initially forming clumps before forming extensive monoculture meadows.Spartina spp threats throughout the United and! A thick cuticle and its stomata are located in deep grooves, this will transpiration!

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